Accordo di Ginevra


The State of Israel (hereinafter “Israel”) and the Palestine Liberation Organization (hereinafter “PLO”), the representative of the Palestinian people (hereinafter the “Parties”):

Reaffirming their determination to put an end to decades of confrontation and conflict, and to live in peaceful coexistence, mutual dignity and security based on a just, lasting, and comprehensive peace and achieving historic reconciliation;

Recognizing that peace requires the transition from the logic of war and confrontation to the logic of peace and cooperation, and that acts and words characteristic of the state of war are neither appropriate nor acceptable in the era of peace;

Affirming their deep belief that the logic of peace requires compromise, and that the only viable solution is a two-state solution based on UNSC Resolution 242 and 338;

Affirming that this agreement marks the recognition of the right of the Jewish people to statehood and the recognition of the right of the Palestinian people to statehood, without prejudice to the equal rights of the Parties’ respective citizens;

Recognizing that after years of living in mutual fear and insecurity, both peoples need to enter an era of peace, security and stability, entailing all necessary actions by the parties to guarantee the realization of this era;

Recognizing each other’s right to peaceful and secure existence within secure and recognized boundaries free from threats or acts of force;

Determined to establish relations based on cooperation and the commitment to live side by side as good neighbors aiming both separately and jointly to contribute to the well-being of their peoples;

Reaffirming their obligation to conduct themselves in conformity with the norms of international law and the Charter of the United Nations;

Confirming that this Agreement is concluded within the framework of the Middle East peace process initiated in Madrid in October 1991, the Declaration of Principles of September 13, 1993, the subsequent agreements including the Interim Agreement of September 1995, the Wye River Memorandum of October 1998 and the Sharm El-Sheikh Memorandum of September 4, 1999, and the permanent status negotiations including the Camp David Summit of July 2000, the Clinton Ideas of December 2000, and the Taba Negotiations of January 2001;

Reiterating their commitment to United Nations Security Council Resolutions 242, 338 and 1397 and confirming their understanding that this Agreement is based on, will lead to, and – by its fulfillment – will constitute the full implementation of these resolutions and to the settlement of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict in all its aspects;

Declaring that this Agreement constitutes the realization of the permanent status peace component envisaged in President Bush’s speech of June 24, 2002 and in the Quartet Roadmap process;

Declaring that this Agreement marks the historic reconciliation between the Palestinians and Israelis, and paves the way to reconciliation between the Arab World and Israel and the establishment of normal, peaceful relations between the Arab states and Israel in accordance with the relevant clauses of the Beirut Arab League Resolution of March 28, 2002; and

Resolved to pursue the goal of attaining a comprehensive regional peace, thus contributing to stability, security, development and prosperity throughout the region;

Have agreed on the following:

Article 1 – Purpose of the Permanent Status Agreement

  1. The Permanent Status Agreement (hereinafter “this Agreement”) ends the era of conflict and ushers in a new era based on peace, cooperation, and good neighborly relations between the Parties.
leggi tutto

Delibera dell’Assemblea Generale sul muro

Tenth emergency special session
Agenda item 5

Illegal Israeli actions in Occupied East Jerusalem
and the rest of the Occupied Palestinian Territory

Algeria, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Brunei Darussalam, Comoros, Cuba, Djibouti, Egypt, Indonesia, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Malaysia, Mauritania, Morocco, Namibia, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Somalia, South Africa, Sudan, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates, Yemen and Palestine: draft resolution

Illegal Israeli actions in Occupied East Jerusalem and the rest of the Occupied Palestinian Territory

The General Assembly,

Reaffirming its resolution ES-10/13 of 21 October 2003,

Guided by the principles of the Charter of the United Nations,

Aware of the established principle of international law on the inadmissibility of the acquisition of territory by force,

Aware also that developing friendly relations among nations based on respect for the principle of equal rights and self-determination of peoples is among the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations,

Recalling relevant General Assembly resolutions, including resolution 181 (II) of 1947, which partitioned mandated Palestine into two States, one Arab and one Jewish,

Recalling also the resolutions of the tenth emergency special session,

Further recalling relevant Security Council resolutions, including resolutions 242 (1967) of 22 November 1967, 338 (1973) of 22 October 1973, 267 (1969) of 3 July 1969, 298 (1971) of 25 September 1971, 446 (1979) of 22 March 1979, 452 (1979) of 20 July 1979, 465 (1980) of 1 March 1980, 476 (1980) of 30 June 1980, 478 (1980) of 20 August 1980, 904 (1994) of 18 March 1994, 1073 (1996) of 28 September 1996, 1397 (2002) of 12 March 2002 and 1515 (2003) of 19 November 2003,

Reaffirming the applicability of the Fourth Geneva Convention as well as Protocol I Additional to the Geneva Conventions to the Occupied Palestinian Territory, including East Jerusalem,

Recalling the Regulations annexed to the Hague Convention respecting the Laws and Customs of War on Land of 1907,

Welcoming the convening of the Conference of High Contracting Parties to the Fourth Geneva Convention on measures to enforce the Convention in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, including Jerusalem, at Geneva on 15 July 1999,

Expressing its support for the declaration adopted by the reconvened Conference of High Contracting Parties at Geneva on 5 December 2001,

Recalling in particular relevant United Nations resolutions affirming that Israeli settlements in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, including East Jerusalem, are illegal and an obstacle to peace and to economic and social development as well as those demanding the complete cessation of settlement activities,

Recalling also relevant United Nations resolutions affirming that actions taken by Israel, the occupying Power, to change the status and demographic composition of Occupied East Jerusalem have no legal validity and are null and void,

Noting the agreements reached between the Government of Israel and the Palestine Liberation Organization in the context of the Middle East peace process,

Gravely concerned at the commencement and continuation of construction by Israel, the occupying Power, of a wall in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, including in and around East Jerusalem, which is in departure from the Armistice Line of 1949 (Green Line) and which has involved the confiscation and destruction of Palestinian land and resources, the disruption of the lives of thousands of protected civilians and the de facto annexation of large areas of territory, and underlining the unanimous opposition by the international community to the construction of that wall,

Gravely concerned also at the even more devastating impact of the projected parts of the wall on the Palestinian civilian population and on the prospects for solving the Palestinian-Israeli conflict and establishing peace in the region,

Welcoming the report of 8 September 2003 of the Special Rapporteur of the Commission on Human Rights on the situation of human rights in the Palestinian territories occupied by Israel since 1967,1/ in particular the section regarding the wall,

Affirming the necessity of ending the conflict on the basis of the two-State solution of Israel and Palestine living side by side in peace and security based on the Armistice Line of 1949, in accordance with relevant Security Council and General Assembly resolutions,

Having received with appreciation the report of the Secretary-General submitted in accordance with resolution ES-10/13 of 21 October 2003, 2/

Bearing in mind that the passage of time further compounds the difficulties on the ground, as Israel, the occupying Power, continues to refuse to comply with international law vis-à-vis its construction of the above-mentioned wall, with all its detrimental implications and consequences,

Decides, in accordance with article 96 of the Charter of the United Nations, to request the International Court of Justice, pursuant to article 65 of the Statute of the Court, to urgently render an advisory opinion on the following question:

What are the legal consequences arising from the construction of the wall being built by Israel, the occupying Power, in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, including in and around East Jerusalem, as described in the report of the Secretary-General, considering the rules and principles of international law, including the Fourth Geneva Convention of 1949, and relevant Security Council and General Assembly resolutions?… leggi tutto

La riforma dell’Ordinamento giudiziario: che spassoso paradosso italiano

“E’ stato dimostrato a Milano – ha dichiarato Ilda Boccassini in una intervista a Repubblica – che a Roma c’erano giudici che vendevano la proprio indipendenza e da anni stiamo qui a discutere dell’indipendenza dei magistrati di Milano che l’hanno svelato e non di quei giudici di Roma che, la loro indipendenza, se la sono venduta. La corruzione dei giudici dovrebbe imporre un confronto sulle correzioni da applicare al sistema giudiziario, al suo ordinamento, ma quelle riforme sembra siano anche nelle mani di chi ha corrotto quei giudici.… leggi tutto

Rapporto del Segretario Generale sul muro

Tenth emergency special session
Agenda item 5
Illegal Israeli actions in Occupied East Jerusalem and
the rest of the Occupied Palestinian Territory

Report of the Secretary-General prepared pursuant
to General Assembly resolution ES-10/13

The present report is submitted pursuant to General Assembly resolution ES-
10/13 of 21 October 2003, adopted at the resumed tenth emergency special session of the Assembly. In paragraph 1 of the resolution, the Assembly “demand[ed] that Israel stop and reverse the construction of the wall in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, including in and around East Jerusalem, which is in departure of the Armistice Line of 1949 and is in contradiction to relevant provisions of international law”.… leggi tutto

Agonia e vocazione dell’Occidente


Che cos’è umano?
Scuola di ricerca e critica delle antropologie
“Agonia e vocazione dell’Occidente”

di Raniero La Valle

“The New American Century”, il nuovo secolo americano è la fine dell’Occidente. Non sto dicendo che è la fine del mondo, e non lo dirò perché nessuno mi ascolterebbe, e perché io penso che il mondo sarà salvato. Ma dico che quale è progettato e perseguito il nuovo secolo americano è la fine dell’Occidente, e questa è un’ipotesi che merita di essere vagliata, ed è una parola che può essere ascoltata.… leggi tutto

Onorare i caduti, non celebrare la morte

La morte dei 19 italiani impegnati nella missione “Antica Babilonia” è un evento così crudele ed assurdo che la coscienza collettiva non lo può accettare, non può accettare che tante vite siano state spezzate, cancellate per sempre sull’altare di una politica impazzita ed irresponsabile. Di qui l’esigenza di elaborare il lutto, secondo il vecchio schema della retorica patriottica, trasformando la morte in “sacrificio”, in offerta generosa delle vita per la salute della collettività. Per questo è stato inventato il “milite ignoto” e sono stati costruiti i “sacrari” ai caduti, e non è un caso che oggi quei templi vengano riaperti.… leggi tutto

Una riforma contro la Democrazia

Non c’è niente di personale, malgrado le apparenze, nello scontro politico sulla giustizia. I fuochi pirotecnici che il Presidente del Consiglio accende ripetutamente con le sue inusitate aggressioni alla magistratura, ai singoli giudici, non sono semplicemente frutto dei rancori personali di un uomo politico “perseguitato” dall’Autorità giudiziaria, a cagione dei fatti criminosi ascritti a lui stesso ed ai suoi principali collaboratori. Dietro lo scontro fra Berlusconi e la Giustizia non si nascondono solo questioni (ed interessi) personali, vi è un disegno “riformatore” di vasto respiro.… leggi tutto

La casa della Libertà cancella la Libertà

Un altro pesante mattone nell’opera di costruzione del regime è stato messo in opera la settimana scorsa quando la Commissione Giustizia del Senato ha approvato l’emendamento proposto dal Senatore Bobbio al disegno di legge riguardante la delega per la Riforma dell’Ordinamento Giudiziario.

Le norme sull’ordinamento giudiziario delineate dalla riforma sono complesse e farraginose e tendono al risultato, sostanzialmente incostituzionale, di “sterilizzare” le competenze che la Costituzione aveva attribuito al Consiglio Superiore della Magistratura. Tutto ciò che riguarda le carriere incide fortemente sulla categoria dei magistrati e suscita malumore ed allarme, ma interessa poco il cittadino comune.… leggi tutto

La resistibile ascesa di Silvio UI

Dobbiamo ringraziare l’ex Presidente della Repubblica Oscar Luigi Scalfaro, per il coraggio con il quale, nel suo intervento alla festa nazionale dell’Unità (il 7 settembre) ha svelato il carattere ontologicamente antidemocratico di questa maggioranza e del Capo politico che la guida. E’ finalmente caduto il tabù del regime, quel tabù, rigorosamente custodito dal ceto politico di centro sinistra, che impediva di riconoscere i caratteri eversivi dell’esperienza politica avviata con l’avvento del Governo Berlusconi.

Questo tabù non poteva proprio più reggere dopo l’intervista di Berlusconi ai giornali “La voce di Rimini” e “Spectator” (il 4 settembre), della quale ha fatto scandalo il linguaggio demenziale nei confronti dei giudici, ma in realtà preoccupante per tutti gli aspetti affrontati (stampa, opposizione e politica estera).… leggi tutto

Guerra e caccia ai ricercati: quel mazzo di carte è truccato

All’indomani del discorso del 1 maggio, con il quale Bush ha annunziato che le operazioni militari in Irak si sono concluse, anche se la guerra (contro il terrorismo) continua, l’unica cosa certa è che l’aggressione angloamericana non è terminata, anzi prosegue attraverso l’occupazione militare.
Secondo il diritto internazionale, infatti, costituisce aggressione:
“l’invasione o l’attacco del territorio di uno Stato da parte delle forze armate di un altro Stato, o qualsiasi occupazione militare, anche temporanea, derivante da tale invasione o da tale attacco..”… leggi tutto